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Ecodome made from mycelium


Have you ever looked at a mushroom and thought, “I could live in that?” Sounds peculiar, doesn’t it? Yet, that’s the reality we’re stepping into with advancements in green construction technologies. The homes of the future may not be made from bricks, steel, or concrete, but from a material that is as surprising as it is promising: mycelium, the root structure of mushrooms.

Housing, as we know it, has often been a subject of debate due to the environmental impact it leaves behind. Traditional construction materials like concrete and steel are not only resource-heavy but also contribute significantly to carbon emissions. As climate change tightens its grip on the planet, there’s a growing need to reimagine the way we build our homes.

Enter mycelium, a humble fungus that might just have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry. It’s not about building mushroom-shaped houses, but about harnessing the properties of mycelium to create eco-friendly building materials. These materials can be grown and manufactured in a way that leaves minimal environmental footprint. Furthermore, at the end of its life, a mycelium building can be composted, returning nutrients back to the earth instead of ending up as waste in a landfill.

This article aims to explore the fascinating concept of creating an “EcoDome,” a dome-shaped house constructed using mycelium panels. But why mycelium, you might ask? And what does the journey from a tiny spore to a livable, sustainable house look like? Let’s take this journey together to discover how a simple fungus could be the cornerstone of a new era in green construction. By the end, you might find yourself not just marveling at the possibilities, but also contemplating the mushroom you see on your next nature walk in an entirely new light.

Understanding Mycelium

To comprehend why mycelium could be a game-changer in sustainable construction, we must first understand what it is and how it functions in nature.

Mycelium is the part of a fungus that we don’t usually see. While mushrooms, the fruiting bodies of a fungus, sprout above ground and catch our attention, the mycelium stays hidden, working silently beneath the surface of the earth. It is a network of tiny threads, or hyphae, which stretch out in a complex web, seeking nutrients and water to feed the fungus.

The reach of these mycelial networks is astonishing. They can extend over vast areas, forming some of the largest living organisms on earth. Mycelium plays a crucial role in our ecosystems by decomposing organic matter and returning its nutrients back to the soil. But that’s not all. It also forms mutually beneficial relationships with plants, enhancing their ability to absorb water and nutrients.

This network of mycelium is resilient, adaptable, and incredibly efficient, traits that make it an attractive prospect for sustainable materials. But how do we transform this hidden network of fungus into a building block? The answer lies in the incredible ability of mycelium to grow and bind together organic materials.

To prepare mycelium for construction, it’s grown in a controlled environment and mixed with organic waste materials like straw or wood chips. Over a period of a few days to weeks, the mycelium spreads through this material, breaking it down and binding it together to form a solid block. Once the desired size is achieved, the block is heated to kill the mycelium, stopping its growth and hardening the structure. The result is a lightweight, durable, and biodegradable mycelium panel.

Artist impression of a eco dome made from mycelium

Why Mycelium for Construction

Why should we consider mycelium as a material for construction? The answer lies in its unique attributes that provide environmental, practical, and economic advantages.

  1. Sustainability: Mycelium is a renewable resource. It can be grown rapidly on a variety of organic waste materials, using minimal energy and water. This makes it a significantly more sustainable option compared to traditional construction materials like concrete or steel, which require a lot of energy to produce and have a substantial environmental impact.
  2. Carbon Footprint: Remarkably, mycelium doesn’t just have a low carbon footprint—it’s actually carbon-negative. As it grows, mycelium absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Therefore, a building made from mycelium panels actively helps to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment.
  3. Biodegradability: At the end of their useful life, mycelium panels can be composted. This contrasts starkly with traditional building materials, which often end up in landfill, contributing to environmental pollution.
  4. Insulation: Mycelium panels provide excellent natural insulation. This can reduce the need for artificial heating and cooling in a building, leading to energy savings and further reducing the building’s environmental impact.
  5. Cost-effectiveness: Mycelium panels can be grown to the desired size and shape, reducing the need for energy-intensive manufacturing processes and the waste generated by cutting and fitting materials.

Of course, mycelium isn’t a miracle material, and there are certain limitations and challenges to its use. For instance, it’s not as strong as steel, so it may not be suitable for large-scale, high-rise construction. However, for smaller structures like an EcoDome, it can be a perfect fit.

There’s also the challenge of public perception. It’s not every day that you hear about houses being grown from fungus, and it can take time for new ideas like this to be accepted. But with increasing awareness of the environmental crisis we face, and the growing demand for sustainable solutions, the potential for mycelium in construction is certainly worth exploring.

In the chapters ahead, we’ll delve deeper into the production of mycelium panels, and how we can build and maintain an EcoDome using this extraordinary material.

The Mycelium Panel Production Process

Knowing the advantages of mycelium, we can now take a closer look at how these panels are actually made. The process is simple, energy-efficient, and requires few resources—another reason why mycelium is gaining interest in the world of green construction.

  1. Growing the Mycelium: The process begins by taking a small sample of mycelium and providing it with the right conditions to grow. It thrives in a warm and humid environment. Therefore, a controlled setting—often a laboratory—is used. The mycelium is placed in a growth medium, such as a petri dish, with a nutrient-rich substrate to feed on.
  2. Preparation of the Substrate: While the mycelium is growing, the substrate that it will eventually inhabit is prepared. The substrate is typically organic waste material like straw, wood chips, or agricultural waste. This not only provides a food source for the mycelium but also forms the bulk of the final panel.
  3. Inoculation: Once the mycelium has grown sufficiently and the substrate is ready, they are combined in a process known as inoculation. The substrate is placed in a mold of the desired shape and size, and then the mycelium is added.
  4. Colonization: The mycelium starts to grow through the substrate, breaking it down and converting it into more mycelium. This process, known as colonization, takes anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the conditions. During this time, the mycelium binds the substrate together into a solid mass.
  5. Curing: Once the mycelium has fully colonized the substrate, the resulting material is heated. This kills the mycelium, stopping it from growing further and making the material safe to handle. The heat also hardens the material, making it sturdy and giving it structural integrity.
  6. Finishing: After curing, the mycelium panel can be removed from the mold. It’s now ready to be used in construction. The panel can be cut and shaped as needed, just like wood or other building materials.

Safety measures during this process are minimal as mycelium is non-toxic and safe to handle. However, standard safety measures for handling biological materials should be followed.

Maintaining the EcoDome

An EcoDome built with mycelium panels is not just a feat of green construction but also a living, breathing structure. Like any home, it requires care and maintenance to keep it in the best possible condition. However, the steps involved in maintaining an EcoDome differ slightly from those for a traditional house.

Durability and Longevity: Mycelium panels, once cured, are surprisingly durable and resistant to decay. However, they are not impervious to damage. Regular inspections should be conducted to check for any signs of wear and tear or damage from external factors such as extreme weather conditions.

Waterproofing: Although mycelium is a naturally water-resistant material, it’s not completely waterproof. Excessive moisture or water exposure can lead to problems over time. Therefore, the EcoDome should be built with good drainage in mind, and regular checks should be conducted to ensure the waterproofing systems are functioning correctly.

Insulation: One of the advantages of mycelium is its natural insulative properties. However, it’s a good idea to periodically check the insulation levels. Over time, if you find that the building is losing heat more quickly than before, it might be a sign that the panels need to be replaced or supplemented with additional insulation.

Biodegradation: Mycelium is a biodegradable material. While this is a plus from an environmental perspective, it also means that over time, the panels may start to break down. This is a slow process, and the panels should last for many years with proper care. Still, it’s important to check the panels regularly for any signs of deterioration.

Repairs: Should any damage occur, mycelium panels can be repaired using the same mycelium composite used to create them initially. For small repairs, a fresh batch of mycelium composite can be grown and applied to the damaged area, where it will grow to fill in the gaps and harden into a solid mass.

Maintaining an EcoDome requires some effort and commitment, but the rewards—a sustainable, eco-friendly living space—are worth it. As we become more accustomed to living with and within nature, these steps can become a part of our regular home care routine.

In the next chapter, we will take a look at the future of mycelium in construction, exploring current research, potential applications, and the challenges that lie ahead.

Future of Mycelium in Construction

While the use of mycelium in construction is still in its nascent stages, the potential it holds for the future of green and sustainable building is vast.

Current Research and Development: Mycelium-based materials are a hot topic in scientific research. Scientists are investigating methods to enhance the strength, durability, and water-resistance of mycelium panels. Moreover, researchers are exploring ways to grow mycelium in ways that are even more sustainable, using less energy, water, and resources.

Potential Applications: Beyond the EcoDome, mycelium has a variety of potential applications in construction. It could be used for interior partitions, insulation, and even exterior cladding. In addition to buildings, mycelium could also be used to create furniture and other home goods, providing a fully integrated, eco-friendly living environment.

Challenges and Solutions: However, it’s not all smooth sailing for mycelium in construction. There are significant obstacles to overcome before it can become a mainstream building material. One of the biggest challenges is scaling up production to meet the demand for large-scale construction projects. Another is improving the material’s strength and durability to match that of conventional construction materials. Finally, there’s the hurdle of public acceptance and building regulations. As a new and unconventional material, it will take time for people to understand and accept mycelium as a viable building material. It will also take time for building codes and regulations to adapt to accommodate these new materials.

Despite these challenges, the future for mycelium in construction looks promising. As we grapple with the realities of climate change, the need for sustainable, low-impact building materials is becoming increasingly urgent. Mycelium, with its ability to grow quickly, absorb carbon dioxide, and return to the earth at the end of its life, offers a compelling solution. As we continue to explore and innovate, the mushroom houses of our imagination may well become the reality of our future.