The sun and the moon represent alchemical gold and silver.
- Sol/Helios: In Norse and Greek mythology, respectively, Sol (or Sunna) and Helios are the personifications of the Sun.
- Ra: The ancient Egyptian sun god, often depicted with a sun disk on his head.
- Amaterasu: In Japanese mythology, Amaterasu is the sun goddess and the central deity of the Shinto religion.
- Surya: In Hinduism, Surya is the solar deity and is often portrayed riding a chariot driven by seven horses.
- Inti: The Incan sun god, widely worshiped in pre-Columbian South America.
- Utu: God of the sun and justice, Anunnaki
- Lugh: In Celtic mythology, Lugh is a god associated with the Sun and is often linked with the festival of Lughnasadh.
- Dazhbog: In Slavic mythology, Dazhbog is the sun god, associated with warmth, life, and fertility.
- Utū/Shamash: Utū is the Sun god in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology, while Shamash is the corresponding deity in Babylonian and Assyrian mythology.
- Huitzilopochtli: The Aztec god of the Sun and war in Aztec mythology.
- Xihe: In Chinese mythology, Xihe is the mother of the ten suns, often depicted as sunbirds, which were eventually shot down by the hero Hou Yi to save the Earth from scorching heat.
The Sun has been central to ancient mythologies across various cultures, serving as a symbol of life, power, and divinity. Its significance is evident in numerous ways:
Creation and Life
In many mythologies, the Sun is a vital part of creation stories. It is often seen as a life-giver, responsible for the growth of plants and the sustenance of life on Earth. For instance, in Egyptian mythology, the sun god Ra is seen as a primary creator deity.
Gods and Deities
The Sun is frequently personified as a god or a major deity. In Greek mythology, Helios (later Apollo) is the Sun god, driving his chariot across the sky. Similarly, in Hindu mythology, Surya is the solar deity, representing health and prosperity.
Symbolism of Power and Royalty
The Sun often symbolizes strength, power, and royalty. Many ancient kings and leaders, like the Pharaohs of Egypt, were considered as embodiments or descendants of the sun god, enhancing their divine right to rule.
Agriculture and Seasons
The Sun’s role in agriculture was paramount in ancient times. Its movement was closely observed to determine seasons for planting and harvesting. In many cultures, festivals and rituals were timed to the solar cycle, like the solstices and equinoxes.
Timekeeping and Calendar
The Sun was crucial in the development of ancient calendars and timekeeping systems. Many ancient structures, like Stonehenge, are believed to be aligned with the solar cycle, marking important dates like solstices.
The Sun Calendar
The year was composed from 364 days, divided in 4 equal seasons of 91 days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of 30 days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly 52 weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday, which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis, the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created. It is not known how they used to reconcile this calendar with the tropical year of 365.24 days (at least seven suggestions have been made), and it is not even sure if they felt the need to adjust it.
Link: Astronomical Book (1 Enoch 72 – 82)