Ur was one of the most important Sumerian cities and served as a major center for trade, culture, and politics. It was the capital of the powerful Sumerian state of Ur III during the Third Dynasty of Ur.
A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim.
- 1st Dynasty – 2,310 Years
- 2nd Dynasty – 168 Years
- 3rd Dynasty – 108 Years
Uruk is often considered one of the world’s oldest cities and was a major Sumerian urban center. It was an important religious center and is associated with the legendary figure of Gilgamesh. The city is also known for the invention of cuneiform writing.
A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug.
- 1st Dynasty – 1,986 Years
- 2nd Dynasty – 187 Years
- 3rd Dynasty – 25 Years
- 4th Dynasty – 49 Years
Lagash was an ancient city-state located northwest of Ur. It was an important political and cultural center during various periods of Sumerian history.
Nippur was a religious center and home to the famous temple of Enlil. It played a crucial role in the religious and administrative affairs of the region.
Eridu is considered one of the oldest Sumerian cities and is often associated with the god Enki. It was a significant religious and cultural center.
Kish was an important city-state and is mentioned in early Sumerian texts. It was a major center for trade and political activities.
A total of 39 kings ruled for 14,409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days:
- 1st Dynasty – 24,510 Years
- 2nd Dynasty – 2,027 Years
- 3rd Dynasty – 100 Years
- 4th Dynasty – 112/506 Years
Shuruppak is known for being the city associated with the Sumerian king Ziusudra, who is a figure in Sumerian flood myths similar to the biblical story of Noah.
- 1st Dynasty – 356 years
A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.
- 1st Dynasty – 420 Years
- 1st Dynasty – 90 Years
- 1st Dynasty – 136 years
1st Dynasty – 93 Years
1st Dynasty – 184 Years
21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days
- 1st Dynasty – 76 Years
- 1st Dynasty 212/235 Years
A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years. 21.
The early Sumerians appeared to be a mixture of African, Harrapan, and other Indus Kush valley civilizations. John Baldwin wrote in his book “PreHistoric Nations” (1869): “The early colonists of Babylonia were of the same race as the inhabitants of the Upper Nile.”
This was corroborated by other scholars including, Chandra Chakaberty, who asserted in his book “A Study in Hindu Social Polity” that “based on the statuaries and steles of Babylonia, the Sumerians were “of dark complexion (chocolate colour), short stature, but of sturdy frame, oval face, stout nose, straight hair, full head; they typically resembled the Dravidians, not only in cranium, but almost in all the details.”
Darker skin does not mean sub-saharan as Negritos like the Aeta of the Philippines are considered Black as well.
Sumer was a main place for trade so it was obviously multi-cultural. As with all places eventually there were wars, invasions, mixed marriages, etc. The overall look over thousands of years becomes more homogenized. So the early inhabitants would have most likely been predominately brown… Below is an early Sumerian relief next to an East African…