- The Underground
- Greek Underworld
- Nordic Svartalfheim
Who lives there
- Depth of earthquakes (800km)
- 1959 – Nasa created
The deepest earthquake ever recorded was a small 4.2 earthquake in Vanuatu at a depth of 735.8 km in 2004. However, although unconfirmed, an aftershock of the 2015 Ogasawara earthquake was found to have occurred at a depth of 751 km.
The Hollow Earth theory is a concept proposing that the planet Earth is entirely hollow or contains a substantial interior space. Notably, this idea has been dismissed by the scientific community due to the overwhelming evidence supporting the earth’s solid core and mantle structure. However, it remains a popular subject in mythology, folklore, and conspiracy theories. Here are some key aspects of this theory:
The idea dates back to ancient times, where various cultures had myths about subterranean realms, such as the Greek Underworld or the Nordic Svartalfheim. The concept evolved over time, with some early scientists and thinkers, like Edmond Halley in the 17th century, speculating about the possibility of a hollow Earth.
19th and Early 20th Century Popularity
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the theory gained some popularity. John Cleves Symmes Jr., an American Army officer, was a well-known proponent who proposed an “inner world” with openings at the poles. He even sought an expedition to the North Pole to find these entrances.
In modern times, the theory has been linked with various conspiracy theories and pseudoscientific claims. Some proponents have associated it with UFOs and extraterrestrial life, suggesting that advanced civilizations might live in the Earth’s interior.
From a scientific standpoint, the Hollow Earth theory is considered a disproven hypothesis. Geological evidence, such as seismic studies of Earth’s interior, the behavior of the planet’s magnetic field, and gravity measurements, all support a solid and dense interior consisting of the crust, mantle, and core.
Despite its lack of scientific validity, the Hollow Earth theory has had a notable impact on literature and popular culture, inspiring a range of fictional works, from Jules Verne’s “Journey to the Center of the Earth” to modern films and video games.
Svartalfheim is often described as a dark, underground world. The dwarves live beneath the earth in a network of mines and forges, where they craft their famed items.
- The moon rings like a bell
Between 1969 and 1977, seismometers installed on the Moon by the Apollo missions recorded moonquakes. The Moon was described as “ringing like a bell” during some of those quakes, specifically the shallow ones. This phrase was brought to popular attention in March 1970 in an article in Popular Science. Source
On November 20, 1969, Apollo 12 deliberately crashed the Ascent Stage of its Lunar Module onto the Moon’s surface; NASA reported that the Moon rang ‘like a bell’ for almost an hour, leading to arguments that it must be hollow like a bell. Lunar seismology experiments since then have shown that the lunar body has shallow moonquakes that act differently from quakes on Earth, due to differences in texture, type and density of the planetary strata, but there is no evidence of any large empty space inside the body.
In 1929 a large earthquake occurred near New Zealand. Danish seismologist Inge Lehmann “the only Danish seismologist,” as she once referred to herself—studied the shock waves and was puzzled by what she saw. A few P-waves, which should have been deflected by the core, were in fact recorded at seismic stations. Lehmann theorized that these waves had traveled some distance into the core and then bounced off some kind of boundary. Her interpretation of this data was the foundation of a 1936 paper in which she theorized that Earth’s center consisted of two parts: a solid inner core surrounded by a liquid outer core, separated by what has come to be called the Lehmann Discontinuity. Lehmann’s hypothesis was confirmed in 1970 when more sensitive seismographs detected waves deflecting off this solid core.
Earth’s atmosphere can be divided into five layers: troposphere (surface to ~ 12 km), stratosphere (~ 12 km to ~ 50 km), mesosphere (~50 km to ~ 80 km), thermosphere (~80 km to 700 km), and exosphere (~ 700 km to 10, 000 km).
Seismic waves, like sound waves, take time to travel. On average, waves travel about 5 miles/second, which varies based on depth and the type of rock the wave travels through. For an earthquake located 25 miles outside of Fairbanks, people in town feel shaking a couple of seconds later.
The first major aftershock following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which struck on March 11, 2011, at 14:46 JST occurred shortly after the main quake. Following the initial 9.1 magnitude earthquake, a series of significant aftershocks were reported, with the first major ones being a 7.4 M_w aftershock at 15:08 JST, a 7.9 M_w at 15:15 JST, and a 7.7 M_w at 15:26 J
Richard E. Byrd
On May 9, 1926, Byrd and Navy Chief Aviation Pilot Floyd Bennett attempted a flight over the North Pole in a Fokker F.VIIa/3m tri-motor monoplane named Josephine Ford after the daughter of Ford Motor Company president Edsel Ford, who helped finance the expedition. The flight left from Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and returned to its takeoff airfield, lasting 15 hours and 57 minutes, including 13 minutes spent circling at their Farthest North. Byrd and Bennett said they reached the North Pole, a distance of 1,535 miles (1,335 nautical miles).
When he returned to the United States from the Arctic, Byrd became a national hero. Congress passed a special act on December 21, 1926, promoting him to the rank of commander and awarding both Floyd Bennett and him the Medal of Honor. Bennett was promoted to the warrant officer rank of machinist. Byrd and Bennett were presented with Tiffany Cross versions of the Medal of Honor on March 5, 1927, at the White House by President Calvin Coolidge.
Byrd was an active Freemason. He was raised (became a Master Mason) in Federal Lodge No. 1, Washington, D.C., on March 19, 1921, and affiliated with Kane Lodge No. 454, New York City, September 18, 1928. He was a member of National Sojourners Chapter No. 3 at Washington. In 1930, Byrd was awarded a gold medal by Kane Lodge.
On December 8, 1954, Byrd appeared on the television show Longines Chronoscope. He was interviewed by Larry LeSueur and Kenneth Crawford about his Antarctic voyages, and said that Antarctica, in the future, would become the most important place in the world for science.
Also in the 5th dimension